AmatekaUbuzima

Uburyo 10 bwakoreshwa mukumenya niba umuntu adahambwe ari muzima – ko yapfuye by’ukuri

Muri afurika kenshi abantu bashobora kuba bahambwa ari bazima. Igitekerezo cyo gutinyako abantu bamwe baba bahambwa ari bazima cyaje mumitwe y’abantu guhera kera. Nubwo iki gitekerezo cyateye ubwoba cyane abakurambere bacu, nanubu ku isi kiracyahangayikishije cyane. Ibi biba akarusho mubihugu byacu bya afurika, aho umuntu ahambwa nta genzura na rimwe akorewe na muganga (muduce tumwe na tumwe). Mbese kubura umwuka gato, ujya kuwugarura uri mu mva kare cyane.

Kuva igihe abo bantu batangiye kumenyako habaho kuba umuntu yahambwa ari muzima, batangiye gukora ubushakashatsi no kuvumbura uburyo bwo kugira bamenya ko umuntu yapfuye by’ukuri. Ntibihagije kuvugisha umunwa ko umuntu yapfuye, ahubwo hagomba kugira ibindi bikorwa mu rwego rwo kumenya neza ko umuntu atagiye guhambwa ari muzima.

Dore uburyo 10 bwemeza neza ko umuntu yapfuye.

  1. Gukamuka amaraso burundu

Ibi byagiye bicishwa mu binyamakuru mugihe cya kera. Urugero, ni mi mwaka wa 1932, ubwo ikinyamakuru cyo mu bwongereza kitwa London Evening News cyatangaje inkuru yavugaga ibyo nyiri restorant yifuzaga. Yifuzaga ko bazemeza ko yapfuye ubwo amaraso yose azaba yamushizemo burundu. Benshi byarabatangaje cyane, gusa bemeje ko uyu mugabo ashobora kuba yari yatewe ubwoba nuko ashobora kuza guhambwa ari muzima. Kugira agabanye ubwo bbwoba, yasabye ikinyamakuru gutangaza inkuru, ko abaganga bagomba kuzatanga icyemezo cyemeza ko yapfuye burundu, ko akwiye guhambwa, aruko amaraso amushizemo.

Umwanditsi Hans Christian Andersen  nawe yarafite ubwoba bukabije bwo kuba yazahambwa ari muzima. Mukuri, ahantu hose yaraye muri hoteli, yahasigaga urwandiko kumeza rwanditseho, “mubyukuri sindapfa.”

Mbere yuko Andersen apfa, yasabye inshuti ye ko igomba kuzamenyaneza niba imitsi itwara amaraso ye yakaswe, agashiramo amaraso, mbere yuko ahambwa.

 

  1. Igenzura kunzara z’intoki

Abagabo sibo bonyine battinyaga kuba bahambwa ari bazima. Abagore nabo bari bakomeye muntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya 20, basomwe byinshi mu binyamakuru byerekana ibihuha by’abantu bahambwa ari bazima. Muri ibyo binyamakuru, bavugaga uburyoimva zimwe na zimwe z’abantu bahambwe, bazifunguraga bagasanga umuntu yahinduye aho yarari. Bivuzeko bamuhambye atarapfa nyuma akaza kuzanzamuka akanyeganyeza aho ari, ariko akaba atavamo kubera afungiranye.

Mu bwongereza, Ruby Caroline Aykroyd, mu mwaka wa 1924, asaba ko umunsi azapfa bazatwika urwara rwe nyuma yo kubona avuyemo umwuka. Ubu buryo bujyana no gufata umwambi, bakawucana, nuko bakegereza urwara, bakarutwika kugeza rushize. Bizeragako mugihe yaba atwitswe ari muzima yakumva ububabare, nuko akaba yakanguka.

Uyu mukobwa gusaba ko atwikwa urwara ntibyamuhagije, kuko yasabyeko yatwikwa ndetse ivurye rikajugunywa mumuyaga ukomeye cyane, rigatatana.

Birahagije, ni muri ubu buryo abantu bo ubihugu by’uburayi ndetse na amerika batangije gukoresha uburyo bwo gutwika imibiri y’abantu kugira bizere neza ko batabahambye ari bazima bakazukira mumva. Gutwikwa, nibyo abantu benshi basabaga, ngo batazakanguka bari mumva ya metero nyinshi z’ubujyakuzimu.

 

  1. Gucika Umutwe

James Mott yashatse kumenyaneza ko atazahambwa ari muzima, nibwo yasize inyandiko nyinshi mu mwaka wa 1927. Nkuko byatangajwe n’umugabo ukomoka muri Birmingham, mu bwongereza, abaganga 2 bagombaga kwiga ndetse no gukora ibizamini kumubiri w’uwo mugabo mbere yuko bemeza ko ahambwa. Nyuma yasabye abo baganga ko bazuzuza acide ikomeye mukanwa ke.

Nyuma yuko ubwo burozi bushyizwe mukanwa ke, hari uburyo bundi bubiri yasabye. Ubwa mbere, kwari ugucibwa umutwe. Mugihe abaganga bagize ubwoba bwo kumuca umutwe, hari uburyo bwa kabiri bwo gutandukanya ibice bye by’umubiri bigakoreshwa mu bushakashatsi.

Ibi byemwezaga ko umutwe nuzaba utamuriho, cyangwa ibice by’umubiri we byatatanijwe, atazaba ashobora kuzuka.

Ahandi byatangajwe ni mu mwaka wa 1905. Ubwo, Dr. Hadwen yakiriye ubusabe bw’umurwayi, nuko amuca umutwe kugira bigaragare ko yapfuye burundu.

Muri Leta a Massachusetts, Charles Albert Reed nawe yasabye ko umutwe we washegeshwa bikomeye, nyuma yuko yaba amaze gupfe. Kumenyesha neza ko yapfuye by’ukuri, hasize amadolari agera kuri 500 agomba guhembwa abazitabira umunsi we wo gucibwa umutwe.

 

  1. Ubutumwa bw’ibanga

Mu binyejana byatambutse, abantu bagiye bifashisha uburyo bwinshi mbere yo kwemezako umuntu yapfuye by’ukuri, ko Atari muri Comma. Birashoboka ko bumwe muburyo budasanzwe bwakoreshwaga mu bwongereza muka wa 1970 ari Ubutumwa bw’Ibanga.

Mbere na mbere, umubiri w’uwo wapfuye washyirwaga ahantu harambuye, cyangwa mu gikarito. Nyuma, ikirahuri kigashyirwa hejuru y’uwo mubiri. Munsi y’icyo kirahuri harimo amagambo yanditse ati “I am dead” mu Kinyarwanda bivuze “Napfuye.”

Ubu butumwa ntibwabaga bugaragara, mbere yuko umubiri utangira kubora ndetse no kurekura imyuka nka Hydrogen Sulfide. Nyuma yuko iyo myuka izamutse, nibwo ubwo butumwa bugufi bwashoboraga kugaragara. Kuko ubu butumwa bwabaga bwanditse hakoreshejwe Silver Nitrate.

Nyuma yuko ubwo butumwa bugaragaye, nibwo bamenyagako umuntu yapfuye by’ukuri. Nibwo bafataga umwanzuro wo kujya kumuhamba.

 

  1. Ibizamini ku guhumeka

Mu gitabo cy’ubuvuzi cyasohotse mu mwaka wwa 1950, umwanditsi yatanze urutonde rw’ibizamini bigomba gukorwa ku buhumekero bw’umuntu kugira bemeze nezo ko yapfuye cyangwa atarapfa.

Ku ikubitiro ni ugukoresha ikirahuri. Iki kizamini gikorwa bafata ikirahuri bakagishyira kumunwa ndetse no kumazuru y’umurwayi. Iki kikagumishwaho hagati y’amasegonda 30 n’isaha. Habaye hari umwuka na muke uri kuzamuka, ibi bigaragazwa n’umwuka ujya kukirahuri.

Ikindi kizamini nacyo ni ugukoresha agatambaro kabugenewe. Nayo ikora nkuko iy’ikirahuri ikora.

Nyuma na nyuma, ni iy’amazi cyangwa iya Mercury. Ikirahuri cyuzuyemo amazi cyangwa mercury, kigashyira kugituza cy’umubiri. Habaye habonetse ihinduka gato cyangwa kwinyeganyeza kw’amazi cyangwa iyo Mercury, byerekana ko umuntu atarapfa.

Gusa ikibabaje, nuko nta kizamini na kimwe muri ibi byakera cyagaragaje neza ko umuntu yapfuye 100%.

 

  1. Gutoboza Urushinge

Gutoboza urushinge bwai uburyo bwakoreshwaga cyane mu myaka ya 1800 no muntangiriro z’imyaka ya 1900. Muri icyo gihe, bizeragako umubiri w’umuntu muzima iyo uwutoboye n’urushinge, ahatobotse hahinduka umutuku nuko hagahita hiyegeranya. Naho k’umuntu wamaze gupfa, ahotobowe hagombaga kuguma uko hameze. Nta mpinduka nyuma yo gukuramo urushinge.

Gusa, hari ahantu hahurirwagaho na benshi mu gutobora, nko kunzara ndetse no mu kirenge. Kenshi na kenshi, urushinge rwashyirwaga mu nzara z’intoki, kuberako ntamuntu muzima wakomeza kumva ubwo buribwe ntanyegenyeza n’agace a kamwe k’umubiri ubwo yaba ari muzima.

Lady Burton, umugore wa Captain Sir Richard Burton, yasabyemo umutima we bagomba kuwutoboza urushinge kugira bemeze neza ko yapfuye. Nyuma asaba ko umubiri we washanyaguzwa ndetse ugatandukanywa.

Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas yasabye umuganga we kumukorera nk’ibya Burton. Ku rupfu rwe, yafashe urushinge rurerure nuko arushinga mumutima we, kugira yemeze neza ko yapfuye.

 

  1. Gukuramo Umutima

Uburyo bwiza bwo kumenya neza ko wapfuye, nuko waba wavuyemo umutima. Nubwo biba ari ugukuramo urugingo mumubiri, ariko ubwo nibwo buryo bwakoreshwaga ngo bamenye neza ko badahambye umuntu ukiri muzima kubantu bakomeye kera. Biratangaje, ko abavuzi ndetse n’abaganga babaga bemeraga gukora ibi bintu.

Hari abagiye basaba ko Imitima yabo yakurwamo kugira bemeze ko bapfuye.

William Shackwell we ntiyasabye ko umutima we ukurwamo. Gusa, kubushake bwe, yasabye umuganga we ko azakata intoki ndetse n’amano bye mbere yuko ahambwa. Yari yabonyeko, niba hari amahirwe ko atapfuye neza, igihe bazaba bamukata intoki cyangwa amano, azabyumva agakanguka.

 

  1. Guterwa Uburozi

Guhita batera uburozi umuntu ugaragaye ko yapfuye bwari bumwe uburyo bwakoreshwaga cyane n’abaganga mu mwaka wa 1895.

Umwe mubaganga, yakoze ubuvugizi ko uburozi bwo mu bwoko bwa Strychnine bwajya buterwa imirambo mbere yuko ihambwa. Hakoreshejwe ubu buryo, nubwo umuntu yaba Atari yapfa by’ukuri, ntabwo yashoboraga gukangukira mumva.

Ibi byagiye bikoreshwa cyane mu myaka ya 1800 cyane ku mibiri y’abantu bagaragaweho n’indwara z’ibyorezo zidakira bari gupfa.

 

  1. Chroloform

Ubu bwari uburyo bukomeye bwakoreshwaga cyane mu myaka ya 1898.

Byatangajwe kumugaragaro ko icupa rimwe rya chloroform ryajya rishyirwa mu mva y’uwatabarutse. Ahandi bavugaga ko iri cupa rya Chloroform ryafungurwa, kuburyo bitazashoboka ko umuntu uri mumva yakanguka nyuma yo guhambwa.

Gusa, nta bimenyetso byemeza neza ko aribwo buryo bwiza bwo kwirinda guhamba umuntu ari muzima.

 

  1. Gutegereza Umubiri Ukabora

Birashoboka ko bumwe muburyo abantu benshi bahuriyeho bwo kumenya neza niba uwo bavugako yapfuye, byarangiye neza, ni ugutegereza akagaragaza ibimenyetso by’uko yatangiye kubora.

Mu myaka ya 1800, byari rusange ko abantu benshi b’abakene, bahita bahambwa ako kanya bikigaragarira amaso ko bapfuye. Cyane nubwo yaba ari ubumara bumwinjiye mumubiri.

Hamwe nanubu muri Afurika ibi birakorwa, umuntu avugwa ko yapfuye mugitondo, kumugoroba bakaba bagiye kumuhamba. Ibi bikorwa cyane muduce two mubyaro.

Kurubu, amategeko yarasohotse yo kwemeza neza ko umuntu yapfuye, aho ashyirwa ahantu habugenewe runaka, hagategerezwa igihe cyateganijwe nyuma yo kujya guhambwa.

Ibindi bizamini bikorwa, ni uguca tumwe mu dutsi dutwara amaraso. Ibi bikorwa mu rwego rwo kumenya neza ko ntamaraso agitembera mumubiri. Hagakorwa uburyo bwo gushyira inzara z’uwo wapfuye ku itabaza ngo barebe niba hari icyo yumva mbere yuko ahambwa.

Uburyo bwo gutwika imibiri nabwo buri muburyo bukoreshwa muri iki kinyejana turimo.


Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Back to top button

Muri gukoresha Adblock

Iyi website ishobora gukomeza gukora, kubera ko ishobora kwamamaza. Niba mukunda amakuru tubagezaho, mwadufasha mugaha uburenganzira iyi website, mufunga Adblock. Murakoze.