Amateka

Ayobozi 10 b’ABANYAGITUGU babi mu mateka y’Afurika

Ibihugu byinshi muri Afurika byagiye bigira impinduka nyinshi zitandukanye muri guverinoma, imwe ivaho isimburwa nindi kanshi hadakoreshejwe ubushobozi ndetse n’ubushake bw’umuturage. Gukoresha igitugu ni kimwe mubyagiye biranga ibihugu byinshi byo muri Afurika kandi no kuri ubu hakaba hari ibihugu bimwe na bimwe bikirangwamo n’igitugu. Abayobozi benshi bo muri Afurika, bafata ubuyobozi bavugako bazakoresha demokarasi, ariko bikarangira bayishyize ku ruhande bagahitamo gukorera inyungu zabo bwite aho gukorera abaturage.

Hano rero hari ututonde rw’abayobozi b’Afurika 10 babi bayoboranye igitugu kurusha abandi mumateka y’uyu mugabane.

 

#10. Charles Taylor

Igihugu: Liberiya

Ubuzima bwa Charles McArthur Ghanakay Taylor wagira ni filime yakinywe. Yabaye Perezida wa 22 wa Liberia kuwa 2 Kanama, 1997 nuko ayobora kugeza kuwa 11 Kanama, 2003. Mbere yuko aba perezida, Taylor yarezwe uburiganya mumitungo, nuko ahungira muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe nibwo nyuma yafashwe arafungwa. Nk’uko bigenda k’umukinnyi wibanze wa Film (Actor of movie), yacitse gereze muri US nuko agaruka muri Afurika.

Mu mwaka wa 1997, yatorewe kuba pereziida. Ubuperezida bwe bwaranzwe no kwemeza ubucuruzi bw’’amabuye y’agaciro butari bwemewe, icururuzwa ry’intwaro ndetse no gushyira mu gisirikare abana bategejeje k’umyaka y’ubukure no kubajyana mu mirwe y’ibyihebe. Mu mwaka wa 2003, yahisemo kwegura kubutegetsi nyuma yo kotswa igitutu gikomeye na guverinoma ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika. Mu mwaka wa 2012, Taylora nibwo yashinjwe ibirego bigera kuri 11. Muri ibyo birego harimo ibikorwa by’iterabwoba, ubwicanyi, gufata kungufu, gufata abantu akabajyayo mu mirimo y’uuburaya, gushyira abantu mubucakara ndetse no kwinjiza mu gisirikare abana bakiri bato.

 

#9. Mobutu Sese Seko

Igihugu : Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo

Mubutu Sese Seko yabaye perezida wa Repubulika iharanira demokarazi ya Kongo kuva mu mwaka wa 1965 kugeza mu mwaka wa 1997 nyuma yo gufata ubutegetsi akoresheje kudeta. Mugihe Mubutu yari kuntebe, yagerageje guteza imbere ubukungu bw’igihugu azamura ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro muri Katanga ndetse akagerageza ko gukurura abashoramari hirya no hino ku isi. Yahinduye n’izina ry’igihugu cye, ikita Repubulika ya Zaire.

Igitanggaje nuko ubukungu butazamutse. Ahubwo ifaranga ry’iki gihugu ryataye agaciro kuburyo budasanzwe, amadeni ariyongera kandi ifaranga ryabo rita agaciro kuburyo bukomeye. Mugihe abaturage barimo kwicwa n’inzara, uyu mugabo we yagwizaga imitungo myinshi akura mumabuye y’agaciro ndetse na ruswa nyinshi. Mu mwaka wa 1997 yirukanywe mubiro n’umutwe w’abigometse k’ubutegetsi, nuko nyuma y’amezi atatu, apfira muri Maroke yishwe na kanseri ya Prostate.

Soma: Abantu 10 b’abahanga bambere ku isi mu mwaka wa 2018

#8. Robert Mugabe

Igihugu: Zimbabwe

Robert Mugabe, umugabo wamenyekanye cyane kubera amagambo yagendaga avuga, yabaye perezida wa Repubulika ya Zimbabwe kuva mu mwaka wa 1987. Mu mwaka wa 1987, Mugabe yashyizweho kuba perezida wa Zimbabwe, nyuma yuko itegeko nshinga ryemejwe. Mu myaka ya 1990, ubukungu bw’igihugu bwataye agaciro cyane, arinako imishahara y’abakora muri guverinoma yiyongera cyane.

Utitaye kuba hari amashyaka arwanya Mugabe, kwiyongera kw’imyenda, ndetse no kugabanuka mubukungu bw’abaturage, Mugabe yatsinze amatora yo muri 2002. Mu mwaka wa 2005, byatangajwe ko yatsinze amatora kubera kwifashisha rswa ndetse no gukoresha igitugu, nuko mu mwaka wa 2008 amatora asubirwamo, Mugabe yanga gutanga ubutegetsi bituma habaho imyivumbagatanyo yahitanye benshi muri Zimbabwe. Yongeye gutsinda amatora yo muri 2013. Mugihe cy’ubutegetsi bwe, umuntu wese wageragezaga kumurwanya, yaterwaga ubwoba cyane, atava ku izima agafungwa cyangwa akicwa.

 

#7. General Sani Abacha

Igihugu: Nigeriya

Umusirikare wo ku rwego rwa General wo muri Nigeriya, Sani Abacha yabaye Perezida w’ukuri w’igihugu cya Nigeriya kuva mu mwaka wa 1993 kugeza muri 1998. Abacha yageze kubutegetse mu mwaka wa 1993, ubwo yahirikaga guverinoma ya Chief Ernest Shonekan. Mu iteka, yihaye ubuhangange ndakumirwa buhanitse.

Bitandukanye cyane nuko bigenda kubandi banyagitugu basahura igihugu kunyunguz abo bwite, Abecha we yongereye ubuhahirane n’ibindi bihugu, agabanya imyenda y’igihugu kandi agaciro k’ifaranga karazamuka cyane. Gusa, guverinoma ye yarezwe cyane kwangiza uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu kandi Abacha hamwe n’umuryango we barezwe kuba barafataga amafaranga y’igihugu bakayakoresha munyungu zabo bwite. Mu mwaka wa 2004, Abacha yashyizwe kumwanya wa 4 mubaperezida barya ruswa cyane ku isi.

 

#6. Macias Nguema

Igihugu: Equatorial Guinea

Francisco Macias Nguema yarahiriye bwambere kuba perezida wa Equatorial Guinea kuwa 12 Kanema, 1968. Yakomeje kuba perezida kugeza ubwo yahiritswe kubutegetsi mu mwaka wa 1979. Amaze kugera kubutegetsi, yashyizeho igihano cy’urupfu kubantu bose bazana iterabwoba kuri perezida cyangwa guverinoma. Yiyise aya mazina harimo nka “Igitangaza cyihariye” cyangwa “Umwarimu mukuru w’uburezi, ubumenyi ndetse n’umuco.”

Abanyagitugu batangaje kubera amateka basiga ku isi atangaje nayo, kandi na afurika ni umugabane wasize ayayo yihariye. Nguema yashyizeho igihano cy’urupfu kubantu bagaragaza ibintu bidasanzwe cyane agerageza kuburyo azarangiza kuyobora abantu hafi ya bose bize barishwe cyangwa baba mubuhungiro. Yatumye kandi abantu baturuka mumuryango we bicwa. Nk’uyu ibi yabikoraga ngo bizagende bite ra? Gushaka igihugu kitarimo n’umuntu numwe wize?

 

#5. Sekou Toure

Igihugu: Guinea

Ahmed Sèkou Tourè yabaye perezida wa Guinea bwambere mu mwaka wa 1958, akomeza kuyobora kugeza mu mwaka wa 1984. Kimwe n’abandi banyagitugu benshi, nyuma yo gutorwa, yafashe ishyaka rye aba ariryo agira ishyaka ryemewe ryonyine mugihugu. Intego ya Toure kwari uguharanira ko iki gihugu kiba socialist kandi uwangaga gukurikiza ibyo avuze yaricwaga cyangwa agahunga.

Bamwe mubageragezaga kudakurikiza ibyo avuze boherezwaga mubigo ngororamuco cyangwa bagasurwa rwihishwa n’abapolisi. Ababarirwa mubaturage ibihumbi 50 bivugwako bishwe mugihe cy’ubuyobozi bwa Toure. Toure yari inshuti kandi yahaye ubwihisho Kwame Nkrumah wahoze ari perezida wa Ghanna, Madino Keita wa Mali, Malcom X na Stockely Carmicheal.

 

#4. Siad Barre

Igihugu: Somalia

Mohammed Siad Barre yabaye perezida wa Repubulika iharanira demokorasi ya Somali kuva mu mwaka wa 1969 kugeza 1991. Nyuma y’iyicwa rya perezida wa 2 wa Somalia, Siad Barre niwe waruyobaye kudeta yafashe guverinoma. Yahise yigira umukuru w’inama y’ikirenga y’impinduramatwara – Supreme Revolutionary Council. Nkuko abanda banyagitugu babigenza, yihaye ubuhangange bw’ikirenga mugihe cy’ubutegetsi bwe.

Mugihe cy’ubuyobozi bwe, Barre yazamuye umubare w’abaturage bo muri Somalia biza, aca ikimenyane ndetse azamura inganda zo mugihugu murwego rwo kuzamura ubukungu. Nubwo ibyo byose yabishyizemo ingufu, iryo terambere ntiryagaragariye amaso. Ubutegetsi bwa Barre bufatwa k’ubutegetsi bw’igitugu gikabije. Yishe benshi, afunga benshi, ndetse anatoteza benshi ubageragezaga kutagendera mumuronko we kandi yimye agaciro uburenganzira bw’abaturage. Yarafite amariba y’amazi arimo uburozi, amashyo ndetse n’abantu bashinzwe kurasa.

 

#3. Omar Al-Bashir

Igihugu: Sudani

Nyuma yo guhirika guverinoma yatowe akoresheje kudeta, Omar Al-bashir yahise yigira perezida wa Sudani kuwa 16 Kanama, 1993. Nibyo koko, nyuma yo gufata ubutegetsi, yashize hasi amashyaka atagendera mumuronko umwe nirye kandi yimika amategeko ya Islam – Islamic legal code. Yaje gutorerwa kuba perezida wa Sudan nyuma yahoo incuro 3, ariko akaregwa kkwiba amajwi, ruswa ndetse no gukoresha iterabwoba mugihe cy’amatora.

Muri Gashyantare 2009, nibwo hatanzwe impapuro zo kumuta muri yombi ashinjwa ubwicanyi, gutsembatsemba abaturage, gufata kungufu ndetse no kujya kurwanya abaturage kubushake gusa ntiyigeze ashyikirizwa ikinko. Bitandukanye cyane n’abandi banyagitugu, Al-bashir yashimiwe cyane kubera guteza imbere ubukungu bwa Sudani. Gusa, mu mwaka wa 2012, iki gihugu cyagize ikibazo cy’uko ifaranga ryataye agaciro cyane.

 

 #2. Hissene Habre

Igihugu: Chad

Hissenè Habrè yabaye perezida wa Chad kuva mu mwaka wa 1982 kugeza muri 1990. Gufata ubutegetsi bwa Hissenè Habrè byagizwemo uruhare n’ibihugu bikomeye nk’Ubufaransa ndetse na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika. Mugihe cy’ubutegetsi bwe, kwangiza amategeko y’ikiremwamuntu ntacyo byari bitwaye. Yashyizeho itsinda ry’ibanga ry’abapolisi rishinzwe kwica ndetse no gutoteza abatagendera kumatwara ye.

Guverinoma ya Habre yaranzwe n’ivangura rishingiye kumoko ndetse igiolisi cy’ibanga cyishe abantu kikabategeka kunywa essence iri mumodoka ndetse bakayibamenaho nuko bakabatwika. Muri Gicurasi, 2016 yakatiwe n’urukiko gufungwa burundu kubera gufata kungufu, itoteza rishingiye kugitsina ndetse no gutanga itegeko ryo kwica abaturage bagera kubihumbi 40.

 

#1. General Idi Amin Dada

Igihugu: Uganda

Kuwa 25 Mutarama, 1971, Idi Amin Dada yakuyeho ministeri w’intebe Milton Oboto. Yabaye perezida ndetse n’umukuru w’ingabo muri Ugand kuva mu mwaka wa 1971 kugeza 1979. Igihe Amin yaramze gufata ubutegetsi, yavuzeko yagombaga kuba umuyobozi witwara neza kugeza igihe andi matora mashya azabera. Yasezeranije kandi ko agomba kurekura imbohe zifinzwe kubera politiki.

Nk’uko bigenda kubandi banyapolitiki, yisubiyeho k’umugambo ye, nuko mu kwezi kwa Gashyantare ahita atangazako ariwe Perezida wa Uganda, hashize ukwezi kumwe gusa kudeta ibaye. Mugihe cy’ubutegetsi bwe, abagera k’ubihumbi 500 barishwe. Mubishwe harimo nk’uwahoze ari minitseri w’intebe Janai Luwum, abanyamakuru, abanyamategeko, abakozi bo mu nteko ndetse n’abandi bakozi ba za sosiyete muri Uganda. Bivugwako imibiri yabo yicaga, yayijugunyaga mu ruzi rwa Nil.

Soma: Menya ALEXENDER THE GREAT, Indwanyi Ikomeye Yabayeho mu Mateka

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